Five mines in Europe take part in €7m digitization project



Sixteen organizations across the European Union have joined forces in Dig_IT, a consortium that is going to administer €7-million destined for a project titled A Human-centred Internet of Things Platform for the Sustainable Digital Mine of the Future.

The goal of the project is to digitize processes and operations at different mine sites in the continent, namely La Parrilla tungsten open-pit mine in Spain; the Marini Marmi underground marble mine in Italy; the Titania ilmenite open-pit mine in Norway; the Sotkamo underground silver mine in Finland; and the Hannukainen open-pit iron ore, copper and gold mine in Finland, which is in the process of being reopened. 

Under the management of the Aragón Technological Institute, the project’s objectives are to be achieved by developing an internet-of-things industrial platform or IIoT that integrates and analyzes data from workers, machinery, surrounding environment and markets. 

“At a human scale, the platform will gather workers’ biometric information, their location and the environmental conditions in their work areas. At a machinery level, it will monitor the operation, position, and state of the equipment, vehicles and tools employed at the mining operation.

To analyze the surrounding environment, it will register the environmental conditions, for example, the quality of the air and water, the temperature, and also the conditions of the terrain, that is, seismic conditions and slope stability,” project coordinator María García Camprubí said in a media statement.

According to García Camprubí, the tool will also incorporate market data such as supply-demand information and commodity prices. 

The project coordinator said that this is not a ‘big-data’ initiative. Rather, the focus will be on the quality of the data and their correct interpretation in real-time to optimize mining processes and operations. To achieve this objective, the consortium will rely on digital technologies, data analysis methodologies, process modelling, generation of digital twins, telecommunications and sensor development.

García Camprubí said special emphasis will be placed on the creation of digital twins to tackle equipment predictive maintenance, soil stability, and air and water quality.

Although each area will be addressed by a different institution, the resulting models will be processed with Caelia Twinkle, a digital twin-building kernel for real-time computer-aided engineering, which will allow integrating the digital twins into each mine’s IIoT platform.

Ball Mill Liner Material Selection

Different crushed material, different working conditions need different material liners to suit. Also, the coarse grinding compartment and fine grinding compartment need different material liners.

H&G Machinery supplies the following material to cast your ball mill liner:


Manganese Steel

The manganese content of the high manganese steel ball mill lining plate is generally 11-14%, and the carbon content is generally 0.90-1.50%, most of which are above 1.0%. At low impact loads, the hardness can reach HB300-400. At high impact loads, the hardness can reach HB500-800. Depending on the impact load, the depth of the hardened layer can reach 10-20mm. The hardened layer with high hardness can resist impact and reduce abrasive wear. High manganese steel has excellent anti-wear performance under the condition of strong impact abrasive wear, so it is often used in wear-resistant parts of mining, construction materials, thermal power, and other mechanical equipment. Under the conditions of low impact conditions, high manganese steel cannot exert the characteristics of the material because the work hardening effect is not obvious.

Chemical Composition
Name Chemical Composition(%)
C Si Mn Cr Mo Cu P S
Mn14 Mill Liner 0.9-1.5 0.3-1.0 11-14 0-2.5 0-0.5 ≤0.05 ≤0.06 ≤0.06
Mn18 Mill Liner 1.0-1.5 0.3-1.0 16-19 0-2.5 0-0.5 ≤0.05 ≤0.06 ≤0.06
 Mechanical properties and metallographic structure
Name Surface Hardness(HB) Impact value Ak(J/cm2) Microstructure
Mn14 Mill Liner ≤240 ≥100 A+C
Mn18 Mill Liner ≤260 ≥150 A+C
C -Carbide  | Carbide A-Retained austenite | Austenite
Product specification
 Size  Hole Dia.(mm)  Liner Length(mm)
≤40 ≥40 ≤250 ≥250
 Tolerance +20 +30 +2 +3


Chrome Alloy Steel

Chromium alloy cast iron is divided into high chromium alloy cast iron (chromium content 8-26% carbon content 2.0-3.6%), medium chromium alloy cast iron (chromium content 4-6%, carbon content 2.0-3.2%), low chromium Three types of alloy cast iron (chromium content 1-3%, carbon content 2.1-3.6%). Its remarkable feature is that the microhardness of M7C3 eutectic carbide is HV1300-1800, which is distributed in the form of a broken network and isolated on the martensite (the hardest structure in the metal matrix) matrix, reducing the cleavage effect on the matrix. Therefore, the high-chromium alloy liner has high strength, ball mill toughness, and high wear resistance, and its performance represents the highest level of current metal wear-resistant materials.

Chemical Composition

Name Chemical Composition(%)
C Si Mn Cr Mo Cu P S
High Chrome Alloy Liner 2.0-3.6 0-1.0 0-2.0 8-26 ≤3.0 ≤1.2 ≤0.06 ≤0.06
Middle Chrome Alloy Liner 2.0-3.3 0-1.2 0-2.0 4-8 ≤3.0 ≤1.2 ≤0.06 ≤0.06
Low Chrome Alloy Liner 2.1-3.6 0-1.5 0-2.0 1-3 0-1.0 ≤1.2 ≤0.06 ≤0.06

Mechanical properties and metallographic structure

Name  Surface(HRC)                                         Ak(J/cm2)  Microstructure
High Chrome Alloy  Liner ≥58 ≥3.5 M+C+A
Middle Chrome Alloy Liner ≥48 ≥10 M+C
Low Chrome Alloy Liner ≥45 ≥15 M+C+P
M- Martensite C – Carbide A-Austenite P-Pearlite

Product specification

Size  Hole Dia.(mm)    Liner Length(mm)
≤40 ≥40 ≤250 ≥250
Tolerance +20 +30 +2 +3


Cr-Mo Alloy Steel

H&G Machinery uses Cr-Mo alloy steel to cast ball mill liner. This material based on Australia standard, (AS2074 Standard L2B, and AS2074 Standard L2C)it’s provides superior impact and wear resistance in all semi-autogenous milling applications.

Chemical Composition

Code Chemical Elements(%)
C Si  Mn Cr Mo Cu P S
L2B 0.6-0.9 0.4-0.7 0.6-1.0 1.8-2.1 0.2-0.4 0.3-0.5 ≤0.04 ≤0.06
L2C 0.3-0.45 0.4-0.7 1.3-1.6 2.5-3.2 0.6-0.8 0.3-0.5 ≤0.04 ≤0.06

Physical Property & Microstructure

Code Hardness(HB) Ak(J/cm2) Microstructure
L2B 325-375 ≥50 P
L2C 350-400 ≥75 M
M-Martensite, C-Carbide, A-Austenite, P-Pearlite


Ni-hard Steel

Ni-Hard is a white cast iron, alloyed with nickel and chromium suitable for low impact, sliding abrasion for both wet and dry applications. Ni-Hard is an extremely wear-resistant material, cast in forms and shapes which are ideal for use in abrasive and wear environments and applications.

Chemical Composition

Name C Si Mn Ni Cr S P Mo Hardness
Ni-Hard AS2027 Gr Ni Cr 1-550 3.2-3.6 0.3-0.8 0.2-0.8 3.0-5.0 1.5-3.0 ≤0.12 ≤0.15 ≤0.5 550-600HBN
Ni-Hard AS2027 Gr Ni Cr 2-550 2.8-3.2 0.3-0.8 0.2-0.8 3.0-5.0 1.5-3.0 ≤0.12 ≤0.15 ≤0.5 500-550HBN
Ni-Hard AS2027 Gr Ni Cr 2-550 3.2-3.6 1.5-2.2 0.2-0.8 4.0-5.5 8.0-10.0 ≤0.12 ≤0.15 ≤0.5 630-670HBN


White Iron Steel

White iron liner is recommended to be using at low impact working condition such as :
1. Belt conveyor liner for the Mining industry.
2. Cement plant ball mill.
3. Chemical industry ball mill.

Chemical Composition

Name Chemical Composition(%)
C Si Mn Cr Mo Cu P S
White Iron Steel Liner 2.0-3.3 0-0.8 ≤2.0 12-26 ≤3.0 ≤1.2 ≤0.06 ≤0.06

Physical Property & Microstructure

Name HRC  Ak(J/cm2) Microstructure
White Iron Steel Liner ≥58 ≥3.5 M+C+A
M-Martensite      C- Carbide     A-Austenite


If you have a special material inquiry, please contact our engineer to service you!



Post time: Jun-19-2020